Read abstracts of our scientific publications and take a look at our posters presented at congresses by our Clearblue® Healthcare Professional Team

  • Fertility and Ovulation
  • Pregnancy
  • Contraception
  • Menopause

Healthcare Professionals Publications and Articles


Publications & Articles


The Menopause Society Annual Meeting 2023: Poster P-13 - Perimenopause symptom prevalence and tracking: importance for the patient and clinician

The prevalence of menopause symptoms in women age 35-60, and the use of methods to track them, was investigated.  


The Menopause Society Annual Meeting 2023: Poster P-14 - Use of serial FSH measurements to detect menopause transition

The aim of this study was to determine if serial urinary FSH testing in combination with menstrual cycle history could be used to indicate a woman’s menopause stage. 


Fertility 2021 Poster - Home testing for timing of natural frozen embryo transfer (nFET) procedures; a solution for reducing clinic visits during Covid-19

This study sought to determine whether timing of nFET using home ovulation tests (OT) is a viable alternative to multiple clinic visits.



Fertility 2021 Poster - Timing of urinary estrone-3-glucuronide tests

The onset of a woman’s fertile phase can be identified by an increase in concentration of urinary metabolites of estradiol, including E1-3G (estrone-3-glucuronide). This study sought to determine E1-3G variation throughout the day.



Fertility 2021 Poster - Changing plans for a baby during the Covid-19 pandemic

The Covid-19 pandemic has brought a great deal of uncertainty to many women’s lives. This study sought to understand whether it had impacted their plans for a baby.



ACOG 2020 Poster - hCG and FSH Levels During Early Pregnancy and Reproductive Aging

Low levels of hCG are known to be co-produced with FSH during reproductive aging (during peri-menopause and menopause). A missed period could be indicative of pregnancy or peri-menopause for woman in later reproductive life, so understanding the reference ranges for hCG is important.



ASRM 2019 Poster - Path to pregnancy. A multinational survey of women’s experiences and expectations when planning pregnancy

This research aimed to understand more about women’s path to pregnancy in five countries; USA, UK, Germany, Italy and China.



ACOG-2019 Poster - Fertility Knowledge of Women in the United States of America

This study sought to assess the understanding of fertility among women in the USA.



ESHRE 2019 Poster P634 - Randomised controlled trial of connected ovulation test system demonstrates double the chances of pregnancy in first cycle and reveals other factors affecting pregnancy likelihood.

This study sought to determine whether the Clearblue Connected Ovulation Test System increases chances of pregnancy, and investigated what other factors were related to likelihood of natural conception.


ESHRE 2019 Poster P485 - Cycle Apps - help or confusion? Understanding women's perception towards cycle tracking apps.

This study sought to understand how women perceive the fertility predictions that are provided through calendar-based cycle tracking apps. 


ESHRE 2019 Poster P499 - Five Country Study of women's attitudes and knowledge regards fertility

This study sought to understand women's attitudes towards becoming pregnant, how good their fertility knowledge is, and determine whether it varies between countries.


ACOG 2019 Poster 6M - Fertility Knowledge of Women in the United States

A study of 1000 US women sought to understand their knowledge of fertility. This study highlights a gap in basic fertility knowledge in many women. Greater awareness and further education are required to equip women with a better understanding of their own fertility in order for them to maximize their chances of conception.



Fertility 2019 Poster P099 - hCG levels can decline pre- or post-onset of bleeding in early pregnancy loss.

Non-progressive rise in human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) followed by decline is indicative of early pregnancy loss. Decline of hCG has been observed to occur before bleeding, but the proportion of losses identifiable prior to bleeding has not been established. This analysis examined changes in daily urinary hCG levels in relation to onset of bleeding.


Fertility 2019 Poster P043 - Connected ovulation testing; user's experience.

This study sought to examine whether a new connected ovulation test with an app provides additional benefits to women trying to conceive. 


Fertility 2019 Poster P193 - Double the chances of conception in first cycle of use with new connected ovulation test.

The aim of this study was to demonstrate that using the Clearblue Connected Ovulation Test System increases chances of pregnancy


Fertility 2019 Poster P042 - New connected ovulation test provides big data on menstrual cycles

In one of the biggest datasets ever examined on menstrual cycles in women seeking to conceive, the cycle length distribution and variability mirrors previous studies. Cycles far shorter or longer than expected could be a result of the users’ poor understanding of their cycle or cycle irregularity. The Clearblue Connected Ovulation Test System therefore provides women with more insight into their cycles and enables them to accurately time intercourse when trying to conceive.


ACOG 2018 Poster 19G - Use of cycle length alone to predict ovulation, as utilized by some Apps, is highly inaccurate

Women trying to conceive will often use methods to time intercourse. This study sought to determine whether accurate prediction is possible based only on cycle length characteristics


ACOG 2018 Poster 10F - First Bluetooth® connected ovulation test with App to predict ovulation and track cycles

This study examined women’s usage and experience of the new Clearblue™ Connected Ovulation Test System


Usage and Awareness of Persona in Germany

To examine the usage and awareness of Persona® (SPD Swiss Precision Diagnostics GmbH); a natural method of contraception based on monitoring urinary luteinising hormone and estrone- 3-glucuronide (a principle urinary metabolite of estradiol), for the identification of days when the risk of pregnancy is high.


Accuracy of perception of ovulation day in women trying to conceive

This study compared women’s estimated day of ovulation with their actual ovulation day in cycles in which they conceived, as determined by detection of the surge in luteinising hormone (LH).


Accuracy of recollection of Last Menstrual Period (LMP)

Many studies have looked at the discrepancy between dating pregnancy using LMP and early ultrasound. However, most studies only include women who can accurately recall LMP....


Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) in Early Pregnancy – A Review of the Evidence

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is produced in the earliest stages of pregnancy. During early pregnancy it plays a role in survival of the corpus luteum and in stimulating the thyroid gland, and it also appears to have a significant role in the implantation of the blastocyst and protection of the embryo against immune attack at the fetal/maternal boundary. The hormone is initially produced by the embryo and, therefore, also acts as a marker for its presence.


Variability in the Length of Menstrual Cycles Within and Between Women - A Review of the Evidence

Menstrual cycles are the re-occurring physiological changes that happen in women of reproductive age. Menstrual cycles are counted from the first day of....


Urinary hCG Levels Concordant between different Races/Ethnicities

This study aimed to recruit a mixed demographic population to examine whether the daily rise in hCG observed in early pregnancy is consistent between different ethnic groups.


Women's knowledge regarding ovulation and most likely time of conception

Education regarding conception tends to be tailored to either pregnancy prevention, or in the case of students studying biology, the basics of the menstrual cycle. When it comes to planning a family, gaps in women's knowledge....


Ability of women to read and interpret home ovulation tests

Becoming pregnant is often not as straightforward as many couples expect. Indeed, when using natural fertility awareness methods alone, two-in-three couples fail to conceive in their first cycle, one-in-five fail to conceive within their first six cycles....



Evidence in support of using the day after the surge in levels of luteinising hormone (LH+1) as a marker for conception

Luteinizing hormone (LH) is produced over a period of a few days around the time of ovulation. At the time of menstruation, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) initiates follicular growth and with the rise in estrogens, the maturing follicle produces an increasing amount of estradiol. Eventually at the time of the maturation of the follicle, the estrogen rise leads to a release of LH. Over the course of several days, the levels of LH peak, ovulation occurs and levels of LH fall again.


Detection of two urinary hormones by a new home ovulation test to identify the wider fertile window: a randomised comparative laboratory study of home ovulation tests

A new home ovulation test (Clearblue Dual-Hormone Digital Test) detects both the pre-ovular urinary rise in estrone-3-glucuronide (E3G) and luteinising hormone (LH). The device aims to identify a wider fertile period than other home ovulation tests. This study examines the number of fertile days detected by a variety of home ovulation tests. Click below to view the poster presented at ESHRE’s 29th Annual Meeting (London, 2013)


Women’s views on fertility and conception in five countries

Demographic trends, such as later motherhood and reduced family size, indicate that the ways women consider fertility and becoming pregnant may also be changing. This study sought to understand women’s views and understanding of fertility and conception in five divergent countries


Comparative study of home ovulation tests, including new dual-hormone test, to reference day of LH surge

This study aimed to compare the accuracy of six home ovulation tests in detecting the LH surge and the number of days of fertility identified by each test.


Multi-national survey of women’s knowledge and attitudes towards fertility and pregnancy

Basic understanding of reproductive health is of value to women before they start a family. However, there is little published information on how knowledgeable women are regarding fertility and pregnancy and their attitudes towards these topics. This study examined women’s knowledge, how they prepared for pregnancy and where they sourced their information.


Effect of format on ability to conduct and interpret home pregnancy tests by untrained users

Clinical analytical tests are now often being marketed to untrained people, in formats normally only used in the laboratory environment. For example, although many home pregnancy tests are designed to be used by women with no training, direct copies of laboratory tests in strip and cassette formats are also available.  The objective of this randomised study was to determine whether these types of tests could be used accurately by a lay person, in comparison to tests specifically designed for home use.


Comparison of home pregnancy test with weeks estimator and ultrasound crown rump measurement to predict delivery date

The objective of this study was to compare prediction of final delivery date by Clearblue Advanced Pregnancy Test in comparison to ultrasound.


Performance of nine home urinary hCG(Human chorionic gonadotropin) pregnancy tests.

Do currently available at home pregnancy tests (HPTs) meet their claimed sensitivity for hCG in early pregnancy testing?


First urinary reproductive hormone normograms referenced to independently determined ovulation day

These are the first urinary reproductive hormone normograms referenced to the actual day of ovulation, and therefore provide the most robust reference ranges to examine menstrual cycle endocrinology.


Review of methodology for determining the day of urinary luteinising hormone surge

This research aims to determine the best objective method for defining the LH surge.


Attitudes and opinions of women using a novel fertility monitor whilst trying to conceive

A summary of women’s opinions of using a monitor to time intercourse for the purposes of
achieving pregnancy.


Accuracy of New Clearblue Digital Pregnancy Test with Weeks Indicator

The Clearblue Digital Pregnancy Test with Weeks Indicator is the fi rst pregnancy test that is capable of telling a woman if she is pregnant, and if so, indicating when she conceived.


Overview of ovulation and planning pregnancy

An overview of ovulation, the hormones that control ovulation, the methods available to women to help identify ovulation, and their utility in planning pregnancy. Includes tracking hormones using an ovulation test or fertility monitor, calendar calculations, apps, basal body temperature and observation of cervical secretions.


Anovulatory cycles

Anovulatory cycles are common, even amongst women with regular periods. This overview of anovulation includes information about prevalence, symptoms, what causes it, and when it affects Clearblue products.